I was looking for something different eat that is quick, healthy, hypoallergenic and has all the nutrients my body needs to be healthy.
So I pulled out my famous pumpkin banana muffins. This is delicious with a spoon of pumpkin seed butter and a glass of coconut water.
Full of potassium, zinc, protein omega-3 fats, you really can’t go wrong with these delicious muffins.
Side note- I have reintroduced eggs in my diet and see to tolerate them well! But if you do not tolerate eggs, you can always swap out for egg substitute powder as well!
Prep time: 15 minutes
Bake time: 30 minutes
Bake Temperature: 350F
3/4c flaxseed meal
2 eggs, beaten
2 bananas, mashed
1 scoop pumpkin seed poweder
2 tbsp pumpkin seed butter
1/2c unsweetened applesauce
1 tsp baking soda
1 tsp vanilla extract
1/4 nondairy milk
Instructions: First mix the wet ingredients. Typically, I take the bananas, vanilla extract, milk, and eggs and throw it in my Blendtech blender.
The I also mix the dry ingredients in a separate bowl. I fold the wet ingredients into the dry ingredients. You can use an electric mixer if you wish, but it really is not necessary. The batter may appear a bit dry , but that is OK. You do not want it to be too moist, it will fall apart.
You can spoon the mixture into a 12 muffin tin (using paper or greasing it with a light spray of grapeseed or avocado oil), and then form then with your hands to make then shape you desire.
Bake it for 30 minutes or until you can remove a toothpick from the center clean.
Allow to cool. Store in refrigerator.
I usually eat one for breakfast with 1 tbsp of pumpkin seed butter. High in minerals, protein, fiber and omega-3 fats, this is a delicious superfood and a quick breakfast or mid-day snack. And with the protein and fiber, this will not only provide satiety, but also help manage your blood sugar.
For this review, I want to summarize the findings on the dietary carbohydrate to protein ratio and how it may influence body composition and blood lipid profiles in adult women.
There is evidence that older adults experience age-related changes in body composition, such as increase in body fat and decrease in lean body mass (Kim, O’Connor, Sands, Slebodnik, & Campbell, 2016). A moderate energy restricted diet is often an effective way for overweight adults to reduce bodyfat mass, and improve their health profile, but it often comes with the price of a loss of 25% of body mass being lost as lean body mass (Kim et al., 2016). Accumulating data suggests that increased protein content of the diet, in combination with exercise training, can reduce the loss of lean body mass in overweight and obese subjects following a weight loss diet. This preservation of lean body mass has been attributed to the increased level of essential amino acids, especially leucine, provided by the protein (Mettler, Mitchell, & Tipton, 2010).
Current dietary guidelines recommend a daily macro-nutrient intake of 55% carbohydrate, 30% protein and 15% fat (Layman et al., 2003). However, this balance has been challenged by evidence from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies, reporting that a higher carbohydrate intake can reduce oxidation of body fat and increase blood triglycerides (Layman et al., 2003). In particular, the optimal ratio of carbohydrate to protein has been challenged on the basis of glucose homeostasis in the context of body mass reduction. Under a higher carbohydrate intake, the body has to rely on insulin to metabolize and dispose large quantities of dietary glucose, whereas under lower carbohydrate intakes (<200g per day), the body would rely more on hepatic production to maintain blood glucose via gluconeogenesis or glycogenolysis (Layman et al., 2003).
A study conducted in 2003 by Layman et al (2003), compared the results of a moderate protein and lower carbohydrate intake to a higher carbohydrate with lower protein intake, and the influence on body mass and blood lipids. In this study, the total energy intake, fat and fiber were consistent among the two groups: 1700 kcal/day, total fat intake was 50g/day and total fiber at 20g per day. In the higher protein group (Protein Group) protein intake averaged 125g/day with a carbohydrate intake of 171g/day. The higher carbohydrate group (CHO) consisted of 68g pf protein per day and 239g of carbohydrates. The relative proportions of energy in the Protein Group were 30% protein, 41% carbohydrate and 29% fat with a ratio of carbohydrate to protein (CHO/protein) of 1.4. The proportion in the CHO Group was 16% protein, 58% carbohydrate and 26% fat with a ratio of 3.5 (Layman et al., 2003). Obviously, the cholesterol and saturated fatty acid intake was higher in the Protein group than the CHO group.
The study duration was 10 weeks. The results of the study indicated the following:
- There was not a big change in body weight between the two groups. The Protein Group lost a total weight of 7.53kg and the CHO group lost 6.96kg.
- Changes in body composition indicate the weight loss was mostly bodyfat. The Protein group lost 14.4% of initial body fat, the CHO group lost 12.2% of initial bodyfat. Loss of lean body mass tended to be greater in the CHO Group compared to the Protein Group. When changes in body composition were expressed as a ratio of fat/lean loss, the Protein group achieved a fat/lean loss of 6.36 vs. 3.92 in the CHO group. The higher protein group clearly had a stronger improvement in body composition.
- There were some differences seen in thyroid hormones, blood lipids and fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin levels, but it was not explained in detail as it was not the main objective of this study.
In summary, the results of this study indicate that the positive changes in body composition associated with the higher protein diet may be associated with either targeting of body fat or sparing of muscle protein, or both. For the purposes of improving body composition, a higher protein diet may be effective for adults.
Before I end this summary, I do want to mention I did stumble upon an interesting study in 2016 that indicates that a high protein intake eliminates the weight loss induced improvement of insulin action on postmenopausal women (Smith et al., 2016). This study indicates that a high protein diet can have adverse effects on postprandial insulin sensitivity. According to the authors, “the beneficial effect of 10% weight loss on muscle insulin action (assessed as glucose disposal rate and phosphorylation of AKT in muscle during a HECP) was eliminated by high protein (HP) intake” (Smith et al., 2016). The failure to improve muscle insulin sensitivity in the higher protein group is clinically important, because it reflects a failure to improve a major mechanism involved in the development of T2D. It also indicates more insulin is required in the higher protein group to dispose of a given amount of glucose. This can be due to:
- BCAA’s, particularly leucine, that can impair insulin mediated uptake of glucose through a negative feedback inhibition
- There may be an association of glycine and tryptophan and metabolites of acylcarnitine in the development of insulin resistance, regardless of the amount of circulating amino acid metabolites measured in the serum.
- There may be a metabolic process related to oxidative stress that is expressed in the higher protein group, as evidenced by gene expression of GSTA4 and PRDX3 that are both associated with oxidative stress. These results suggest that the adverse effect of high protein intake on insulin action during weight loss therapy may have been mediated through its effects on oxidative stress because it prevented the WL-induced decrease, and even increased, metabolic pathways involved in oxidative stress response in muscle.
- Both groups had improved liver insulin sensitivity, but the higher protein group experienced a reduction in muscle insulin sensitivity. This is attributed to the fact that protein is a potent insulin secretagogue, which may overcome the adverse effect of protein on insulin sensitivity by increasing the secretion of insulin (Smith et al., 2016).
I must mention however, protein causes greater satiation and has a greater thermogenic effect of feeding than carbohydrate and fat. This alone can lead to greater weight loss with a higher protein than a standard protein diet. “Therefore, the adverse effect of dietary protein on muscle insulin action could be offset by its effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and energy balance” (Smith et al., 2016).
In summary, this review demonstrates that the protein content of a weight loss diet can have significant effects on metabolic function and weight loss outcome. I personally believe that diets should be personalized for the individual. A high protein diet is not suitable for everyone. Neither is a high carbohydrate diet. The individual’s needs should be taken into consideration, along with various markers of health that can be measured in a blood chemistry panel, their nutritional needs (such as macronutrient deficiencies) and even nutrigenomics, health predispositions and family history. The one size fits all approach is not appropriate when prescribing nutrition therapy, as the results of these studies also demonstrate.
What do I think? The evidence is good for a higher protein diet, but I wonder if they looked into the glucogenic amino acids and their effect on insulin sensitivity. In my review, I found another journal that indeed indicated that various amino acids can actually decrease insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, it was leucine that was contributing to this change in muscle insulin sensitivity, and that is actually a ketogenic amino acid! If I find the free time at some point, I would love to research the effects of glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids and how they affect insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. I personally have not been a fan of high protein diets. I feel it is too hard on the kidneys, and considering glycine is often a problem with oxalate metabolism, especially in the context B1 deficiency, I feel the risk of kidney stones is too great to recommend high protein across the board (See image). I prefer a more balance approach, with a balance of macronutrients and incorporating intermittent fasting as a way to improve blood lipids and insulin sensitivity.
Kim, J. E., O’Connor, L. E., Sands, L. P., Slebodnik, M. B., & Campbell, W. W. (2016). Effects of dietary protein intake on body composition changes after weight loss in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev, 74(3), 210-224. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuv065
Layman, D. K., Boileau, R. A., Erickson, D. J., Painter, J. E., Shiue, H., Sather, C., & Christou, D. D. (2003). A Reduced Ratio of Dietary Carbohydrate to Protein Improves Body Composition and Blood Lipid Profiles during Weight Loss in Adult Women. J Nutr, 133(2), 411-417. doi:10.1093/jn/133.2.411
Mettler, S., Mitchell, N., & Tipton, K. D. (2010). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(2), 326-337. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e
Smith, G. I., Yoshino, J., Kelly, S. C., Reeds, D. N., Okunade, A., Patterson, B. W., . . . Mittendorfer, B. (2016). High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women. Cell Rep, 17(3), 849-861. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2016.09.047
Ingredients: blend together in a blender or Vitamix and juice it.
1 medium piece of peeled ginger, about 2 inches long (experiment with different amounts of this please due to oxalate content!)
1/2c coconut milk or any non-dairy milk of your choice
1 tsp coconut oil or any oil (improves absorption)
1 tbsp curcumin/resveratrol by Seeking Health (See Fullscript)
1 scoop Perfect Keto Vanilla Collagen powder (see link)
1 scoop Optimum GI Powder (see Fullscript)
Benefits of Ingredients:
- Ginger– it is a rhizome plant that has been used in medicine for 4700 years! IT is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent which can improve CVD, indigestion, immune system, respiratory function, and bacterial infections. “The Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials published a study in 2011 that tested just how effective ginger is in enhancing immune function. Comparing the ability of ginger to kill Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes with conventional antibiotics, Nigerian researchers discovered that the natural solution won every time!”
- Curcumin comes from the curcuma longa plant which grows in India and Southeast Asia. It has powerful anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, pain killing, cholesterol lowering, blood sugar lowering properties. Curcumin has been shown to improve systemic markers of oxidative stress. In addition, it has been shown to benefit the kidneys (Hewlings & Kalman, 2017). While there appear to be countless therapeutic benefits to curcumin supplementation, most of these benefits are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Many studies indicate that turmeric is extremely effective to arthritis and other pain related conditions. Despite its reported benefits via inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms, one of the major problems with ingesting curcumin by itself is its poor bioavailability, which appears to be primarily due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. As a result, is best taken with black pepper. According to a study, published in Planta Medica, taking turmeric in combination with black pepper, which contains piperine, improves turmeric absorbability throughout the entire body. They added 20mg of piperine to 2,000mg turmeric, and it increased the bioavailability of turmeric 154 percent! Turmeric can also reduce liver inflammation, stimulate bile flow and can influence carcinogen metabolism via detoxification. It also can stimulate phase 2 detoxification of your liver enzymes.
- Coconut– Medium chain fatty acid known for its caprylic acid, lauric acid and capric acid. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial as it is able to penetrate the lipid walls of bacteria
and can kill H. pylori as well. It is a potent anti-fungal (thanks to lauric acid found in monolaurin) and can reduce candida and viruses. Coconut oil can also improve your energy and metabolism and can be used as fuel. Great for digestion and improves ulcerative colitis. If
coconut oil is taken at the same time as your omega 3 supplement, it can make them twice as effective, as they are readily available to be digested and used by the body.
Interesting notes in regards to UTI:
Coconut oil has been known to clear up and heal urinary tract infection and kidney infections. The MCFAs in the oil work as a natural antibiotic by disrupting the lipid coating on bacteria and
killing them. Research also shows that coconut oil directly protects the liver from damage. Coconut water also helps hydrate and support the healing process. Doctors have even injected coconut water to clear up kidney stones. Coconut is a powerful superfood, which is evident given all these tremendous coconut oil benefits. There are too many benefits to list, such as weight loss and periodontal health, so here is a link for you to check out yourself. I have been using Monolaurin myself with great success all around and even lost a few pounds! This stuff is great for your gut, and can improve bacteria and gut health by destroying bad bacteria and candida together! Dazzling duo!!!
- Resveratrol– Resveratrol possesses a wide range of biological properties, among them antioxidant, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. That
is enough to WOW anyone. The most well-known property of resveratrol is their capacity to act as a potent antioxidant. Numerous studies have demonstrated that resveratrol possesses antitumor
action and is a likely candidate for treatment and prevention several types of cancer. The phytoestrogen, resveratrol has received great attention as an upcoming preventive and therapeutic agent against breast cancer. Resveratrol has several neuroprotective roles and can
reduce some of the issues associated neuroinflammation. Resveratrol is associated with being able to reduce intestinal inflammation by down regulating inflammatory chemicals associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Resveratrol, in addition to the above benefits, has been studied for its ability to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast such as Candida. It can also inhibit the growth of some pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, some of the major causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. In addition, resveratrol may increase ovarian follicular reserve and prolong ovarian life span, serving as a potential anti-aging agent.
- Collagen- I personally chose this collagen because the amazing vanilla flavor makes this drink so creamy, it has become a nightly dessert drink for my family! You get gut healing, antiinflammatory action and delicious and smooth enjoyment all in one! Much to the discontent of
collagen lovers everywhere, most of the gut microbiome and collagen research remains in its infancy. But there is some evidence that amino acids in collagen, specifically glycine, may reduce GI inflammation in conditions like irritable bowel syndrome and improve digestion. It
also has a pretty healthy amount of glutamine, which is an important amino acid for gut health as it’s like food for your colon cells. There are some studies that have found that people with IBS have diminished levels of collagen. Health collagen levels are associated with regulating stomach acid, healing intestinal wall and lining and possibly even the bladder lining!
Here is the one that I use!
- Optimum GI Powder– Optimum GI Powder offers comprehensive support for optimum gastrointestinal health and function. The lining of the gut must have proper permeability and integrity so it can not only absorb nutrients but also prevent toxins, allergens, and microbes from gaining access to the bloodstream. This product is formulated for those looking to support the GI mucosal lining. It contains 15 ingredients that can repair the mucosal lining, improve intestinal
function, improve nutrient absorption and regulate healthy bowel function. Consists of DGL, slippery elm, marshmallow, chamomile, okra extract and cat’s claw provide comprehensive
support of gut function by coating and soothing the intestinal lining. It may also help relax the intestines, which aids in alleviating occasional cramping. Aloe Vera to promote a variety of good bacteria in the gut.
During the past two decades, there has been a rapid increase in studies that report associations with gene polymorphisms, nutrition and disease risk (Burdge, Hoile, & Lillycrop, 2012). This is a paradigm shift from traditional nutritional recommendations that have been based on age, sex, and pregnancy. The advances in the association with epigenetics and nutritional requirements have been the driver of the advancement in the field of nutrigenomics, which has been wildly exploding.
What is epigenetics? We learned in middle school that our genetic code is the sequence of nucleotides in our DNA, which can certainly influence health status. However, I was amazed when I learned for the first time that there is another set of instructions that affects our gene expression, and this set of instructions can actually influenced by our environment such as our diet! This is referred to as epigenetics. I remember learning in my Biology Masters that Epigenetics meant “above the genome”. Epigenetics is the “study of heritable changes in gene function that occurs independent of a change in DNA sequence” (Kauwell, 2008) which involves a group of modifications that do not alter the actual DNA structure, but rather chromatin structure that can regulate transcription. “The major epigenetic processes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNA’s” (Burdge et al., 2012).
As we learned once in college, through the process of meiosis, there are multiple ways that diversity occurs among our genotypes to ensure no two genotypes are alike (well, except in the case of identical twins). These include crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization. This creates genetic uniqueness that is a result of variations in our DNA in which one nucleotide is substituted for another at specific locations on our genome, often called SNP’s (single nucleotide polymorphism) (Kauwell, 2008). We are finding out that SNP’s can alter certain nutrient requirements and metabolism, and although they do not affect regions that code for proteins, they do affect events that occur at the molecular levels such as transcription factor binding to the promoter region of the gene, which can thus alter the expression of that gene. Studies with identical twins have demonstrated some interesting results in the role environment indeed can play a role as seen in insights from identical twins (Learn Genetics, n.d.).
One common nutritionally relevant SNP that is a hot topic in functional medicine occurs on the MTHFR gene which provides instructions for making an enzyme called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. This enzyme plays a role in processing amino acids such as homocysteine to methionine (NIH, n.d.). This SNP involves the substitution of cytosine with thymine (C->T) at the base pair 677 of the gene, that results in a coding change where alanine is replaced with valine at position 222 in the gene product (Kauwell, 2008). Inheriting one or two copies of this gene variant can down-regulate the enzyme function, which has some health implications. For example, someone with two copies of the gene (homozygous) may experience elevated plasma homocysteine, especially when paired with low folate status (Kauwell, 2008). This can put the person at risk for coronary artery disease. “Fortunately, reduced MTHFR activity associated 677C->T polymorphism is attenuated when folate status is adequate” (Kauwell, 2008).
What is fascinating about our epigenome is that it provides an extra layer of instructions besides our genetic sequence that codes for proteins synthesized by our bodies. This “extra layer of instructions” can affect whether certain genes are turned on or off, which can thus affect cellular function and metabolism. In fact, the environment has a strong influence on these instructions, such as nutrient status from food and supplements, which can alter the epigenetic state of the genome and subsequent gene expression. What this means is that the same exact DNA sequence for a particular gene may give rise to different outcomes based on things like diet-induced epigenetic modifications that can influence gene silencing and activation.
This is an exciting time for the field of nutrition and nutrigenomics, as we are finding increasing evidence that nutrition throughout the life course can modify the epigenome in such a way that can influence risk of a number of important diseases. “Therefore, if nutritional recommendations are to be targeted at individuals then epigenetic effects must be included in any attempt at personalized nutrition” (Burdge et al., 2012).
Burdge, G. C., Hoile, S. P., & Lillycrop, K. A. (2012). Epigenetics: are there implications for personalised nutrition? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 15(5), 442-447. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283567dd2
Kauwell, G. P. (2008). Epigenetics: what it is and how it can affect dietetics practice. J Am Diet Assoc, 108(6), 1056-1059. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.03.003
Learn Genetics. Insights from Identical Twins. Retrieved (2019, April 25) from https://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/
NIH (n.d.) MTHFR gene. Retrieved (2019, April 25) from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/MTHFR
The rapidly expanding discoveries in the fields of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics are transforming the field of nutrition and health education. As a health educator, I plan to use this information to empower and enlighten clients to make informed decisions on their lifestyle choices. It also will help me become a proficient “translator” in the language most people are unfamiliar with. Genetics can be confusing and for many people, unknown territory. As a result, I see my role as a “genetics literate” health educator that can regurgitate the complex terminology into something the average person can understand. I believe it is a skill that every clinician should adopt.
What is the impact of genomics on the practice of nutrition?
By using genetics and molecular biology to predict individual risks, based on genotype, nutrigenomics may have the potential to prevent and treat diet-related chronic disease and conditions. The push for personalized nutrition began in 2003 after the Human Genome Project published the first sequence of the human genome, as it began to uncover that the “one-size-fits-all” nutritional strategies are not as effective as we once thought (Dennett, 2017). Since then, gene-diet interactions that affect various metabolic pathways related to disease risk and health are continuously being uncovered, shaping personalized nutrition, which targets dietary recommendations to an individual’s genetic profile (Nielsen & El-Sohemy, 2012). To date, both nutrigenetics (influence of gene variants and the interaction with the environment) and nutrigenomics (the influence of the environment to our gene expression) both have opportunities as well as challenges. A greater understanding on how gene-nutrient interactions influence key metabolic pathways that influence gene expression and changes in the metabolome can aid in treatment and prevention of disease (Kohlmeier et al., 2016). Genetic data can be integrated with phenotypical, social, cultural and personal preferences to provide a more individual nutritional approach (Kohlmeier et al., 2016).
If we have a greater understanding of potential gene-nutrient interactions, then it may be possible to manipulate diet in such a way to minimize the metabolic risk certain diseases, such as obesity(Phillips, 2013). It may be possible to diagnose disease risk early and target interventions such as lifestyle modifications or changes in nutritional behavior or exercise therapy to reduce the risk of disease development (Phillips, 2013). Knowledge gained from current research in the field could lead to the development of personalized nutritional guidelines for individuals and specific subpopulations, (Nielsen & El-Sohemy, 2012), while also providing the ability to categorize individuals into subgroups (Kohlmeier et al., 2016). And finally since nutrients can regulate gene expression patterns, by influencing gene transcription and translation, the information obtained can provide important insights about the influence of specific food components on important biological processes in risk of certain diseases (Fenech et al., 2011).
As promising as this may sound, there are some challenges. Genomics can make it difficult to make simple, general recommendations (Kohlmeier et al., 2016). As a result, as our understand of genomics expands, nutrition therapy may be perceived as more complex, and that could be a deterrent for individuals who want to make simple lifestyle changes. For example, a subset of the participants who had lower educational status and were members of ethnic minority groups reported a more deterministic interpretation of the results and were more confused by the information (Nielsen & El-Sohemy, 2012). Another issue is that the genetic testing industry is largely unregulated and there are some concerns over the consumer’s ability to accurately interpret the meaning of the test results, given that no healthcare professional involvement is required (Nielsen & El-Sohemy, 2012.
Some questions that still are unanswered include (Fenech et al., 2011):
- Will public health really be improved with individualized tailored recommendations?
- How costly will personalized nutrition be? Will this approach only be available for those with money and education?
- Will people be motivated to adhere to a tailored diet?
- How will this affect those who really need a simplistic view on the role of food on our health? Will this new information dilute general healthy eating messages?
And finally, there are also some legal and social issues that need to be addressed (Kohlmeier et al., 2016).
I believe there is still quite some room for growth in the genomics world to address some of the challenges that arise. However, the opportunities are evident and continuously expanding, and only time will tell what the future holds.
Dennett, C. (2017). The Future of Nutrigenomics. Retrieved (2019, May 5) from https://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/1017p30.shtml (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Fenech, M., El-Sohemy, A., Cahill, L., Ferguson, L. R., French, T. A., Tai, E. S., . . . Head, R. (2011). Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics: viewpoints on the current status and applications in nutrition research and practice. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics, 4(2), 69-89. doi:10.1159/000327772
Kohlmeier, M., De Caterina, R., Ferguson, L. R., Gorman, U., Allayee, H., Prasad, C., . . . Martinez, J. A. (2016). Guide and Position of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics on Personalized Nutrition: Part 2 – Ethics, Challenges and Endeavors of Precision Nutrition. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics, 9(1), 28-46. doi:10.1159/000446347
Nielsen, D. E., & El-Sohemy, A. (2012). Applying genomics to nutrition and lifestyle modification. Per Med, 9(7), 739-749. doi:10.2217/pme.12.79
Phillips, C. M. (2013). Nutrigenetics and metabolic disease: current status and implications for personalised nutrition. Nutrients, 5(1), 32-57. doi:10.3390/nu5010032